Momordica Charantia fruit extract is also known as bitter melon plant, use for blood sugar and diabetes management in the Philipppines
Momordica charantia or bitter melon is a plant eaten and used medicinally in much of Asia. Momordica charantia is traditionally used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine for various conditions, including blood sugar control. In the Philippines, Momordica charantia is known as Ampalaya, and widely used and advertised for its blood sugar lowering benefits.
Momordica charantia supplement
Himalaya Herbal company
Bitter Melon has been used for centuries for its broad health benefits.
Momordica charantia benefits
Recent studies indicate that it can also lower plasma lipids and VLDL in diabetic animal models as well as animals fed a high-fat diet, suggesting an effect on lipoprotein metabolism. Momordica charantia may also be beneficial in blood sugar control, and has some anti viral activity.
Chemical composition of momordica charantia
The vines and leaves have cucurbitane triterpenoids, kuguacins F-S, pentanorcucurbitacins, octanorcucurbitacin, and trinorcucurbitacins.
Mechanism of action
There are several dozen active substances in Momordica charantia fruit. Compounds in this plant activate the enzyme AMPK, a protein that regulates the body's metabolism and affects glucose uptake. One of the compounds increased fatty acid oxidation and glucose disposal in the body.
Dr. Mon-Jia Tan of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Shanghai have isolated and described several compounds from Momordica charantia known as cucurbitane triterpenoids, and tested their effects on glucose (sugar) and fat metabolism in cells and in mice. When tested in muscle and fat cells, the compounds stimulated the glucose receptor GLUT4 to move from the cell interior to the cell surface, thus promoting more effective glucose metabolism. Several of the tested compounds had effects comparable to those of insulin. Tests in mice of two of the compounds found that they promoted both glucose tolerance and fat burning, and one was particularly effective in promoting glucose tolerance in animals consuming high fat diets. Chemistry & Biology, March 2008.
Antidiabetic Activities of Triterpenoids
Momordica charantia Associated with Activation of the AMPK Pathway.
Chem Biol. 2008. Tan MJ, Ye JM, Turner N, Weiss HC, Gesing ER, Rowland A, James DE, Ye Y. State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.
Four cucurbitane glycosides, momordicosides Q, R, S, and T, and stereochemistry-established karaviloside XI, were isolated from bitter melon Momordica charantia. These compounds and their aglycones exhibited a number of biologic effects beneficial to diabetes and obesity. In both L6 myotubes and 3T3-L1 adipocytes, they stimulated GLUT4 translocation to the cell membrane-an essential step for inducible glucose entry into cells. This was associated with increased activity of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key pathway mediating glucose uptake and fatty acid oxidation. Furthermore, momordicoside(s) enhanced fatty acid oxidation and glucose disposal during glucose tolerance tests in both insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant mice. These findings indicate that cucurbitane triterpenoids, the characteristic constituents of Momordica charantia, may provide leads as a class of therapeutics for diabetes and obesity.
Momordica charantia reduces plasma apolipoprotein B-100 and increases hepatic insulin receptor substrate and phosphoinositide-3 kinase interactions.
Br J Nutr. 2008; Nerurkar PV, Lee YK, Motosue M, Adeli K. Laboratory of Metabolic Disorders and Alternative Medicine, Department of Molecular Biosciences and Bioengineering, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI, USA.
We recently demonstrated that Momordica charantia juice is a potent inhibitor of apoB secretion and TAG synthesis and secretion in human hepatoma cells, HepG2, that may be involved in plasma lipid- and VLDL-lowering effects observed in animal studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of bitter melon juice on plasma apoB levels and hepatic insulin signalling cascade in mice fed high-fat diet (HFD). Female C57BL/6 mice (4-6 weeks old) were randomized into three groups receiving regular rodent chow, HFD and HFD+BMJ. The data indicate that bitter melon juice not only improves glucose and insulin tolerance but also lowers plasma apoB-100 and apoB-48 in HFD-fed mice as well as modulates the phosphorylation status of IR and its downstream signalling molecules. Investigating the biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved in amelioration of diabetic dyslipidaemia by Momordica charantia juice may lead to identification of new molecular targets for dietary / alternative therapies.
Cucurbitane-Type Triterpenoids from Momordica
Planta Med. 2010. Ma J, Whittaker P, Keller AC, Mazzola EP, Kennelly EJ, Krynitsky AJ, Rader JI. Office of Regulatory Science, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, U. S. Food and Drug Administration, College Park, MD, USA.
One new cucurbitane-type triterpenoid glycoside, momordicoside U ( 1), together with five known cucurbitane-type triterpenoids and related glycosides, 3 beta,7 beta,25-trihydroxycucurbita-5,23( E)-dien-19-al ( 2), momordicine I, momordicine II, 3-hydroxycucurbita-5,24-dien-19-al-7,23-di- O- beta-glucopyranoside, and kuguaglycoside G ( 6), were isolated from the whole plant of MOMORDICA CHARANTIA. Their structures were determined by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Momordicoside U ( 1) was evaluated for insulin secretion activity in an IN VITRO insulin secretion assay and displayed moderate activity.
Q. Are Momordica charantia capsules standardized for MAP 30 content? If yes, what is MAP concentration per capsule or dose?
A. This product is not standardized to any MAP extract. There is, as of yet, no human research with bitter melon extract supplements for any length of time, therefore standardization to any particular extract does not seem to make any practical sense if there are no human studies to indicate one extract is better than another extract percentage or better than the whole Momordica charantia herb.
Momordica charantia a cure for HIV ? I take
the following prescriptions for HIV: Kaletra and Didanose.
A. We have not seen any research regarding the use of Momordica charantia supplements for HIV.